GLORIA - Global health risks related to atmospheric composition and weather


Academy of Finland: Global health risks related to atmospheric composition and weather (GLORIA)

Consortium grant, Director, PI Jouni J. K. Jaakkola

Project information

Project duration


Funded by

Research Council of Finland - Academy Project

Project coordinator

University of Oulu

Contact information

Project leader

Project description

Project name:

Global health risks related to atmospheric composition and weather (GLORIA)


Principal investigator at CERH:

Jouni Jaakkola (Center for Environmental and Respiratory Research, CERH, University of Oulu)

Co-principal Investigator:

Jaakko Kukkonen (Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI, Helsinki)

Other investigators at CERH:

Research professor Maritta Jaakkola

Adjunct professor Timo Hugg

Postdoctoral researcher Niilo Ryti

Research assistant Simo-Pekka Kiihamäki


Air pollution is globally the world’s largest single environmental health risk, and a substantial part of the population also suffers from allergic diseases caused by pollen. We will assess the relations between atmospheric composition (air quality and allergenic pollen), weather, and mortality and morbidity. The assessments will be done both on global and urban scales. We will use a previously produced long-term, global dataset with pollutant concentrations for 35 years. The project also uses an extensive health-related study of approximately 100 cities in 14 countries.

A focal point of the study is the impacts associated with the atmospheric emissions originated from shipping. We will conduct a global assessment of the effects of exposure to ship emissions on mortality, globally and in the selected major 14 coastal target cities. We will also analyse scenarios for the future, assuming new emission control areas. The information will be important also for political decision-making.


Funding period is 01.09.2017 - 31.12.2022.


CERH / Academy of Finland Research program, grant no. 310372

Project actions


Conferences, seminars

Jaakko Kukkonen. Ilmanlaadun muutoksia globaalista lokaaliin neljällä vuosikymmenellä [The changes of air quality over four decades, on scales from global to local]. Invited plenary lecture.

The Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society, 43. Ilmansuojelupäivät [Annual Seminar 2018], Lappeenranta, Finland 21.-22.8.2018.

Mikhail Sofiev. Effect of ship sulphur emission reduction to climate forcing and health. Oral presentation. The Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society, 43. Ilmansuojelupäivät [Annual Seminar 2018], Lappeenranta, Finland 21.-22.8.2018.

Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen. Skrubberin toiminta teoriassa ja käytännössä [The functioning of a scrubber in theory and practice]. Oral presentation. The Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society, 43. Ilmansuojelupäivät [Annual Seminar 2018], Lappeenranta, Finland 21.-22.8.2018.

Communications for students

Jaakko Kukkonen. “The Roles of Environment and Technology on Health”, Lecture series, Tampere University, 2018, two lectures, each 45 min and discussion on ”Air pollution and its impacts on health”

GLORIA in media

Communications for scientific audience

Press Release by the FMI (2017): “An accurate inventory of ship traffic emissions for the European sea areas.” (in English) and (in Finnish).

FMI Science News (2017): “An urban modelling system containing the CAR-FMI model was successfully evaluated against three measurement campaigns in London and Birmingham. Good results add more confidence to the application of the CAR-FMI model internationally.”

Shipping pollution hotspots mapped with real-time data. In: SciDevNet, Bringing science and development together through news and analysis. Review article for the general public, based on the scientific article by Johansson, Jalkanen and Kukkonen, Atmos. Environ. 2017.

Communication for the general public

Interview of Jaakko Kukkonen in Helsingin Sanomat (largest newspaper in Finland), topic “Environmental and climatic effects of shipping and aviation”, 2019.

News at the Finnish television, 21.11.2018. Interview of Jaakko Kukkonen on “The impacts of wind-land fires on climate change, human health and biodiversity”.

Finnish TV ’Morning News’ (YLE1 Aamu-tv), 21.11.2018, Interview of Jaakko Kukkonen, topic “Forestry and forest passage”,

Interview of Jouni Jaakkola, Helsingin sanomat August 23, 2019, topic ”Suomessakin ilmansaasteet vaarantavat terveyttä” [Air pollution causes health risks also in Finland, in Finnish]

Interview of Jouni Jaakkola, Helsingin sanomat (online) August 22, 2019, topic

Suomen ilma on maailman puhtainta, mutta kansainvälisen tutkimuksen mukaan ilmansaasteet voivat tappaa myös täällä“ [The air quality in Finland is among the cleanest in the world but air pollution may increase mortality also here according to an international study, in Finnish]

Mediuutiset October 29, 2020

Väitös: Äidin altistuminen ilmansaasteille lisää kohtukuoleman riskiä [in Finnish]

Kaleva October 29, 2020

Oulun yli­opis­ton väi­tös­tut­ki­mus: Il­man­saas­teet li­sää­vät koh­tu­kuo­le­man ja en­nen­ai­kai­sen syn­ny­tyk­sen riskiä [in Finnish]

MTV News 6 May 2021

Ilmansaasteet vaikuttavat luontoon, ihmisen terveyteen – ja pörssikursseihin: "Yksi hyvä syy pyrkiä vähentämään ilmansaastepitoisuuksia" [in Finnish] [online media] 5 May, 2021

Exposure to air pollution can influence investors' decision making News [online media] 5 May, 2021

Exposure to air pollution can influence investors' decision making

Kaleva 5 May 2021

Oulun yliopiston tutkimus: Ilmansaasteet voivat vaikuttaa päätöksentekoon osakemarkkinoilla [in Finnish]

Radio Pooki 5 May 2021

Oulun yliopiston tutkimus: Pienhiukkaspäästöille altistuminen yhteydessä sijoittajien päätöksentekoon [in Finnish]

Tiedon silta 22 March 2021 [in Finnish]

Ilmastonmuutoksen haittojen nitistäjä

Project results



  1. Lehtomäki H, Korhonen A, Asikainen A, Karvosenoja N, Kupiainen K, Paunu VV, Savolahti M, Sofiev M, Palamarchuck Y, Karppinen A, Kukkonen J, Hänninen O. Health Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution in Finland. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Apr 12;15(4).
  2. Kukkonen J, Kangas L, Kauhaniemi M, Sofiev M, Aarnio M, Jaakkola JJK, Kousa A, Karppinen A. Modelling of the urban concentrations of PM2.5 on a high resolution for a period of 35 years, for the assessment of lifetime exposure and health effects. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2018;18(11):8041-8064.


  1. Korhonen A, Lehtomäki H, Rumrich I, Karvosenoja N, Paunu VV, Kupiainen K, Sofiev M, Palamarchuk Y, Kukkonen J, Kangas L, Karppinen A, Hänninen O. Influence of spatial resolution on population PM2.5 exposure and health impacts. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health. 2019;12(6):705-718.
  2. Siddika N, Rantala AK, Antikainen H, Balogun H, Amegah AK, Ryti NRI, Kukkonen J, Sofiev M, Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJK. Synergistic effects of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) on the risk of preterm birth: A population-based cohort study. Environ Res. 2019 Sep;176:108549.
  3. Savolahti M, Lehtomäki H, Karvosenoja N, Paunu VV, Korhonen A, Kukkonen J, Kupiainen K, Kangas L, Karppinen A, Hänninen O. Residential Wood Combustion in Finland: PM2.5 Emissions and Health Impacts with and without Abatement Measures. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Aug 14;16(16).
  4. Lee JY, Kim H, Gasparrini A, Armstrong B, Bell ML, Sera F, Lavigne E, Abrutzky R, Tong S, Coelho MSZS, Saldiva PHN, Correa PM, Ortega NV, Kan H, Garcia SO, Kyselý J, Urban A, Orru H, Indermitte E, Jaakkola JJK, Ryti NRI, Pascal M, Goodman PG, Zeka A, Michelozzi P, Scortichini M, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Hurtado M, Cruz J, Seposo X, Nunes B, Teixeira JP, Tobias A, Íñiguez C, Forsberg B, Åström C, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Ragettli MS, Guo YL, Chen BY, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J, Dang TN, Do Van D, Mayvaneh F, Overcenco A, Li S, Guo Y. Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability. Environ Int. 2019 Oct;131:105027.
  5. Liu C, Chen R, Sera F, Vicedo-Cabrera A, Guo Y, Tong S, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho M, Hilario P Saldiva N, Lavigne E, Matus Correa P, Valdes Ortega N, Osorio Garcia S, Pascal M, Stafoggia M, Scortichini M, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Hurtado M, Cruz J, Nunes B, Teixeira JP, Kim H, Tobias A, Íñiguez C, Forsberg B, Åström C, Ragettli MS, Guo YLL, Chen BY, Bell ML, Wright CY, Scovronick N, Garland R, Milojevic A, Kyselý J, Urban A, OrruAaron H, Indermitte E, Jaakkola JJK, Ryti NRI, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J, Cohen A, Gasparrini A, Kan H. Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in 652 Cities. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 22;381(8):705-715.
  6. Stojiljkovic A, Kauhaniemi M, Kukkonen J, Kupiainen K, Karppinen A, Rolstad Denby B, Kousa A, Niemi JV, Ketzel M. The impact of measures to reduce road dust, evaluated for a street canyon in Helsinki. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019;19:11199–11212,


  1. Kukkonen J, López-Aparicio S, Segersson D, Geels C, Kangas L, Kauhaniemi M, Maragkidou A, Jensen A, Assmuth T, Karppinen A, Sofiev M, Hellén H, Riikonen K, Nikmo J, Kousa A, Niemi JV, Karvosenoja N, Santos GS, Sundvor I, Im U, Christensen JH, Nielsen OK, Plejdrup MS, Nøjgaard JK, Omstedt G, Andersson C, Forsberg B, Brandt J. The influence of residential wood combustion on the concentrations of PM2.5 in four Nordic cities. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2020;20:4333–4365.
  2. Siddika N, Rantala AK, Antikainen H, Balogun H, Amegah AK, Ryti NRI, Kukkonen J, Sofiev M, Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJK. Short-term prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of preterm birth - A population-based cohort study in Finland. Environ Res 2020 May;184:109290.
  3. Kukkonen J, Savolahti M, Palamarchuk Y, Lanki T, Nurmi V, Paunu VV, Kangas L, Sofiev M, Karppinen A, Maragkidou A, Tiittanen P, Karvosenoja N. Modelling of the public health costs of fine particulate matter and results for Finland in 2015. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2020;20: 9371–9391.
  4. Karl M, Pirjola L, Karppinen A, Jalkanen J-P, Ramacher MOP, Kukkonen J. Modeling of the Concentrations of Ultrafine Particles in the Plumes of Ships in the Vicinity of Major Harbors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(3):777.
  5. Balogun H, Rantala A, Antikainen H, Siddika N, Amegah AK, Ryti N, Kukkonen J, Sofiev M, Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola J. Effects of air pollution on the risk of low birth weight in a cold climate. Appl. Sci. 2020; 10(18):6399.


  1. Ruuhela R, Votsis A, Kukkonen J, Jylhä K, Kankaanpää S, Perrels A. Temperature-Related Mortality in Helsinki Compared to Its Surrounding Region Over Two Decades, with Special Emphasis on Intensive Heatwaves. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(1):46.
  2. Jaakkola MS, Lajunen TK, Heibati B, Wang YC, Lai CH, Jaakkola JJK. Occupation and subcategories of asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 2021 Sep;78(9):661-668.
  3. Allaouat S, Yli-Tuomi T, Tiittanen P, Turunen AW, Siponen T, Kukkonen J, Kangas L, Kauhaniemi M, Aarnio M, Ngandu T, Lanki T. Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter originating from traffic and residential wood combustion and the prevalence of depression. J Epidemiol Community Health 2021;75:1111-1116.
  4. Okokon EO, Yli-Tuomi T, Siponen T, Tiittanen P, Turunen AW, Kangas L, Karppinen A, Kukkonen J, Lanki T. Heterogeneous Urban Exposures and Prevalent Hypertension in the Helsinki Capital Region, Finland. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 29;18(3):1196.
  5. Lajunen TK, Jaakkola JJK, Jaakkola MS. Different effects of smoking on atopic and non‐atopic adult‐onset asthma. Clin Transl Allergy. 2021;e12072.
  6. Vaičiulis V, Jaakkola JJK, Radišauskas R, Tamošiūnas A, Lukšienė D, Ryti NRI. Association between winter cold spells and acute myocardial infarction in Lithuania 2000-2015. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 23;11(1):17062.
  7. Kiihamäki SP, Korhonen M, Jaakkola JJK. Ambient particulate air pollution and daily stock market returns and volatility in 47 cities worldwide. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8628.
  8. Jaakkola JJK, Kiihamäki SP, Näyhä S, Ryti NRI, Hugg TT, Jaakkola MS. Airborne pollen concentrations and daily mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular causes. Eur J Public Health. 2021 Oct 11;31(4):722-724.


  1. Savouré M, Bousquet J, Jaakkola JJK, Jaakkola MS, Jacquemin B, Nadif R. Worldwide prevalence of rhinitis in adults: A review of definitions and temporal evolution. Clin Transl Allergy. 2022 Mar;12(3):e12130.
  2. Jaakkola MS, Hyrkäs-Palmu H, Jaakkola JJK. Residential Exposure to Dampness Is Related to Reduced Level of Asthma Control among Adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Sep 9;19(18):11338.
  3. Orru H, Olstrup H, Kukkonen J, López-Aparicio S, Segersson D, Geels C, Tamm T, Riikonen K, Maragkidou A, Sigsgaard T, Brandt J, Grythe H, Forsberg B. Health impacts of PM2.5 originating from residential wood combustion in four nordic cities. BMC Public Health. 2022 Jul 4;22(1):1286.
  4. Frohn LM, Geels C, Andersen C, Andersson C, Bennet C, Christensen JH, Im U, Karvosenoja N, Kindler PA, Kukkonen J, Lopez-Aparicio S, Nielsen OK, Palamarchuk Y, Paunu VV, Smith Plejdrup M, Segersson M, Sofiev M, Brandt J. Evaluation of multidecadal high-resolution atmospheric chemistry-transport modelling for exposure assessments in the continental Nordic countries. Atmospheric Environment 2022;290:119334.
  5. Choi HM, Lee W, Roye D, Heo S, Urban A, Entezari A, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Zanobetti A, Gasparrini A, Analitis A, Tobias A, Armstrong B, Forsberg B, Íñiguez C, Åström C, Indermitte E, Lavigne E, Mayvaneh F, Acquaotta F, Sera F, Orru H, Kim H, Kyselý J, Madueira J, Schwartz J, Jaakkola JJK, Katsouyanni K, Diaz MH, Ragettli MS, Pascal M, Ryti N, Scovronick N, Osorio S, Tong S, Seposo X, Guo YL, Guo Y, Bell ML. Effect modification of greenness on the association between heat and mortality: A multi-city multi-country study. EBioMedicine. 2022 Sep 8;84:104251.
  6. Heibati B, Jaakkola MS, Lajunen TK, Ducatman A, Veysi R, Karimi A, Jaakkola JJK. Do hospital workers experience a higher risk of respiratory symptoms and loss of lung function? BMC Pulm Med. 2022 Aug 8;22(1):303.
  7. Masselot P, Sera F, Schneider R, Kan H, Lavigne É, Stafoggia M, Tobias A, Chen H, Burnett RT, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A, Bell ML, Chen BY, Guo YL, Ragettli MS, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Åström C, Forsberg B, Íñiguez C, Garland RM, Scovronick N, Madureira J, Nunes B, De la Cruz Valencia C, Hurtado Diaz M, Honda Y, Hashizume M, Ng CFC, Samoli E, Katsouyanni K, Schneider A, Breitner S, Ryti NRI, Jaakkola JJK, Maasikmets M, Orru H, Guo Y, Valdés Ortega N, Matus Correa P, Tong S, Gasparrini A. Differential Mortality Risks Associated With PM2.5 Components: A Multi-Country, Multi-City Study. Epidemiology. 2022 Mar 1;33(2):167-175.


  1. Belachew AB, Rantala AK, Jaakkola MS, Hugg TT, Jaakkola JJK. Asthma and Respiratory Infections from Birth to Young Adulthood: The Espoo Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2023 Feb 24;192(3):408-419. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwac210.
  2. Paciência I, Rantala AK, Antikainen H, Hugg T, Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJK. Varying effects of greenness in the spring and summer on the development of allergic rhinitis up to 27 years of age: The Espoo Cohort Study. Allergy. 2023 Jan 20. Online ahead of print [Letter].
  3. Mozaffari S, Heibati B, Jaakkola MS, Lajunen TK, Kalteh S, Alimoradi H, Nazari M, Karimi A, Jaakkola JJK. Effects of occupational exposures on respiratory health in steel factory workers. Frontiers in Public Health-Occupational Health and Safety 14 February 2023,
  4. Mäkikyrö EMS, Jaakkola MS, Lajunen TK, Malmberg LP, Jaakkola JJK. Subtypes of adult−onset asthma at the time of diagnosis: A latent class analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Feb 9;20(4):3072.

Other publications

Publications intended for professional communities

  1. Hänninen O, Karvosenoja N, Kukkonen J. Puun pienpolton ja katupölyn haittojen vähentäminen (Abatement of the adverse effects of residential wood combustion and street dust). Ilmansuojelu 1/2019, pp. 16-21.

Conference abstracts

  1. Jaakkola JJK, Kiihamäki SP, Näyhä S, Ryti NRI, Jaakkola MS. Airborne pollen concentrations and daily respiratory disease mortality. European Respiratory Society (ERS) Conference, Paris, France 15.-19.9.2018. European Respiratory Journal 2018 52: PA5072; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.congress-2018.PA5072
  2. Jaakkola JJK, Rantala AK, Antikainen H, Hugg TT, Kukkonen J, Kangas L, Sofiev M, Jaakkola MS. Prenatal and early-life exposure to PM2.5 and O3 and the development of asthma in the first 27 years of life. European Respiratory Journal 2019 54: PA1993; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.PA1993

Research groups