Association of one-hour post-load glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test with type 2 diabetes and its related complications

Thesis event information

Date and time of the thesis defence

Place of the thesis defence

Leena Palotie auditorium

Topic of the dissertation

Association of one-hour post-load glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test with type 2 diabetes and its related complications

Doctoral candidate

Licentiate of Medicine Anni Saunajoki

Faculty and unit

University of Oulu Graduate School, Faculty of Medicine, Research Unit of Population Health

Subject of study

Medicine

Opponent

Associate Professor Merja Laine, University of Helsinki

Custos

Professor Juha Auvinen, University of Oulu

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One-hour post-load glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test is a useful method for identifying people at high risk for type 2 diabetes and its related complications

One-hour post-load glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test is a capable method for identifying individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Early detection of people at high risk of type 2 diabetes allows interventions that may delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes and related complications. The previously accepted methods for diagnosing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are fasting glucose, 2-hour post-load glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and long-term blood glucose HbA1c. However, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test has been considered time-consuming, and thus 1-hour post-load glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test has risen in interest.

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the association of 1-hour post-load glucose with type 2 diabetes and its related complications. Four Finnish study populations were used for the analyses of the present thesis. The value of 1-hour post-load glucose measurement was compared with current diagnostic methods.

The results revealed that one-hour post-load glucose was a better predictor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events than fasting or 2-hour post-load glucoses. Elevated 1-hour post-load glucose was associated with retinopathy signs and elevated levels of albumin in urine, but no such an association was seen in fasting glucose, 2-hour post-load glucose and HbA1c. Furthermore, the 2-hour post-load glucose did not provide any benefit in addition to fasting and 1-hour post-load glucoses in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and its related complications.

In conclusion, these results together with previous findings indicate that the use of 1-h post-load glucose and shortened 1-hour oral glucose tolerance test seems reasonable to consider in the future. Shortening the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test to 1 hour would likely improve its acceptability in practice as it would be more timesaving and patient-friendly than 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test.
Last updated: 7.11.2022